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Hydrogeology is a science dealing with the properties, distribution, and circulation of water on the surface of the land, in the soil and underlying rocks, and in the atmosphere. The hydrologic cycle, a major topic in this science, is the complete cycle of phenomena through which water passes, beginning as atmospheric water vapor, passing into liquid and solid form as precipitation, thence along and into the ground surface, and finally again returning to the form of atmospheric water vapor by means of evaporation and transpiration.
The term “geohydrology” is sometimes erroneously used as a synonym for “hydrogeology.” Geohydrology is concerned with underground water. There are many formations that contain water but are not part of the hydro logic cycle because of geologic changes that have isolated them underground. These systems are properly termed geo-hydrologic but not hydrogeologic. Only when a system possesses natural or artificial boundaries that associate the water within it with the hydrologic cycle may the entire system properly be termed hydrogeologic.
1- The author’s primary purpose is most probably to
2- Which of the following is most likely to be the subject of study by a geohydrologist?
3- Which of the following can be the best title for this passage?
4- Based on the passage, it can be inferred that
If you have ever made a list of pros and cons to help you make a decision, you have used the utilitarian method of moral reasoning. One of the main ethical theories, utilitarianism posits that the key to deciding what makes an act morally right or wrong is its consequences. Whether our intentions are good or bad is irrelevant; what matters is whether the result of our actions is good or bad. To utilitarians, happiness is the ultimate goal of human beings and the highest moral good. Thus, if there is great unhappiness because of an act, then that action can be said to be morally wrong. If, on the other hand, there is great happiness because of an action, then that act can be said to be morally right.
Utilitarians believe that we should carefully weigh the potential consequences of an action before we take it. Will the act lead to things that will make us, or others, happy? Will it make us, or others, unhappy? According to utilitarians, we should choose to do that which creates the greatest amount of good (happiness) for the greatest number of people. This can be difficult to determine, though, because sometimes an act can create short-term happiness but misery in the long term. Another problematic aspect of utilitarianism is that it deems it acceptable-indeed, even necessary-to use another person as a means to an end and sacrifice the happiness of one or a few for the happiness of many.
1- In this passage the author refers to a list of pros and cons in order to
2- According to the definition of utilitarianism, stealing bread to feed hungry children would be morally
3- According to the utilitarian principles described in the passage, we should
4- The author’s purpose is to show that
5- According to the passage, Robert Wiseman
6- According to the passage, all of the following are characteristics of lucky people EXCEPT that they
7- It can be understood from the passage that the writer is likely to …………..
Some say that nothing is more vivid or memorable than a picture. We disagree. No visual image is as vivid as the image created by the mind in response to words. The main function of the poet or the artist is, in fact, to enable people to see more deeply into things than they can with the unaided eye. There is more to life than meets the eye, and this is what good poetry or painting is all about.
It is not true that one picture is worth a thousand words. It takes only a few words- if they are the right words- to ignite the imagination and produce pictures that are far more colorful than anything within the range of electronic communications.
Yet the ultimate importance of print can be shown not by its superior images but by its ability to convey abstract ideas. No matter how intensive or prolonged a person’s formal schooling may be, he is only partially educated if he is not able to think abstractly. He knows that the most important factor in the making of decision is abstract thought. No other medium of communications can equal the speed and accuracy of print in moving and abstract idea from one human brain to another. If we are not concerned with philosophy, then let us put an end to print because print is the natural habitat of philosophical ideas.
1) According to the passage, the written word…. .
2) In Paragraph 1, line 4, “there is more to life than meets the eye” implies that …. .
3) According to the passage, a few words ….. .
4) The most important impact of words is their ability to …… .
5) A truly educated man must, according to the passage, be able to …… .
6) According to the passage, the best way for conveying abstract thoughts is …. .
7) Philosophical ideas can best be communicated ….. .
8) In paragraph 1, line 1, “memorable” is closest in meaning to …. .
9) In paragraph 2, line 2, “ignite” is closest in meaning to …. .
10) In paragraph 3, line 1, “ultimate” is closest in meaning to …. .
For two decades after World War II, mass production was extremely popular. Mass-production techniques pushed companies into standardized products, long product life cycles, and rigid manufacturing, emphasizing efficiency and low cost over flexibility. Special orders cost more. But today’s consumers are very choosy. They want quality, value, and products specially tailored to their needs, but always at the lowest possible price. For now mass customization has come to the fore. Mass customization uses information technology to produce and deliver products and services designed to fit the specifications of individual customers. Companies can customize products in quantities as small as one with the same speed and low cost as mass-production methods. Mass-customization systems use information taken from the customer to control the flow of goods.
1) We learn from the passage that mass production ….
2) We learn from the passage that one of the characteristics of mass production is …. .
3) By the phrase “mass customization” as it is used in the passage, is meant the production of goods …. .
4) According to the passage, present-day customers… . .
5) The point is made in the passage that mass customization ….. .
6. According to the passage, which of the following statements is NOT true about mass production?
7. According to the passage, which of the following statements is true about mass customization?
8. In line 4, “choosy” is the opposite of ….. .
84) In line 5, “tailored” is closest in meaning to …….
10. In line 6, “has come to the fore” can be rewritten as …….. .