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Question 1 of 47
Read the following passages and then choose the best answer for each question.
Hummingbirds are small, often brightly colored birds of the family Trochilidae that live exclusively in the Americas. About 12 species are found in North America, but only the ruby-throated hummingbird breeds in eastern North America and is found from Nova Scotia to Florida. The greatest variety and number of species are found in South America. Another hummingbird species is found from southeastern Alaska to northern California.
Many hummingbirds are minute. But even the giant hummingbird found in western South America, whichis the largest known hummingbird, is only about 8 inches long and weighs about two-thirds of an ounce. The smallest species, the bee hummingbird of Cuba and the Isle of Pines, measures slightly more than 5.5 centimeters and weighs about two grams.
Hummingbirds’ bodies are compact, with strong muscles. They have wings shaped like blades. Unlike the wings of other birds, hummingbird wings connect to the body only at the shoulder joint, which allows them to fly not only forward but also straight up and down, sideways, and backward. Because of their unusual wings, hummingbirds can also hover in front of flowers so they can suck nectar and find insects. The humming-bird’s bill, adapted for securing nectar from certain types of flowers, is usually rather long and always slender, and it is curved slightly downward in many species.
The hummingbird’s body feathers are sparseand more like scales than feathers. The unique character of the feathers produces brilliant and iridescent colors, resulting from the refraction of light by the feathers. Pigmentation of other feathers also con-tributes to the unique color and look. Male and female hummingbirds look alike in some species but different in most species; males of most species are extremely colorful.
The rate at which a hummingbird beats its wings does not vary, regardless of whether it is flying forward, flying in another direction, or merely hovering. But the rate does vary with the size of the bird — the larger the bird, the lower the rate, ranging from 80 beats per second for the smallest species to 10 times per second for larger species. Researchers have not yet been able to record the speed of the wings of the bee hummingbird but imagine that they beat even faster.
Most hummingbirds, especially the smaller species, emit scratchy, twittering, or squeaky sounds. The wings, and sometimes the tail feathers, often produce humming, hissing, or popping sounds, which apparently function much as do the songs of other birds.
1. According to the passage, where are hummingbirds found?
Question 2 of 47
2. The author indicates that the ruby-throated hummingbird is found
Question 3 of 47
3. The word minute in the second paragraph is closest in meaning to
Question 4 of 47
4. The word which in the second paragraph refers to
Question 5 of 47
5. What does the author imply about the rate hummingbirds’ wings beat?
Question 6 of 47
6. The author indicates that a hummingbird’s wings are different from those of other birds because
Question 7 of 47
7. The author implies that the hummingbird’s unique wing structure makes it similar to what type of vehicle?
Question 8 of 47
8. The word bill in the third paragraph is closest in meaning to
Question 9 of 47
9. The word sparse in the fourth paragraph is closest in meaning to
Question 10 of 47
10. According to the passage, what causes the unique color and look of hummingbirds?
Question 11 of 47
11. The author indicates that hummingbirds emit noise from their
Question 12 of 47
The term lichen refers to any of over 20,000 species of thallophytic plants that consist of a symbiotic association of algae and fungi, plural for alga and fungus. Previously, lichens were classified as single organisms until scientists had the benefit of micro-scopes, at which time they discovered the association between algae and fungi. Thus, the lichen itself is not an organism, but the morphological and biochemical product of the association. Neither a fungus nor an alga alone can produce a lichen.
The intimatesymbiotic relationship between these two living components of a lichen is said to be mutualistic, meaning that both organisms benefit from the relationship. It is not certain when fungi and algae came together to form lichens for the first time, but it certainly occurred after the mature development of the separate components.
It appears that the fungus actually gains more benefit from the relationship than does the alga. Algae form simple carbohydrates that, when excreted, are absorbed by fungi cells and transformed into a different carbohydrate. Algae also produce vitamins that the fungi need. Yet, fungi also contribute to the symbiosis by absorbing water vapor from the air and providing shade for the algae, which are more sensitive to light.
Lichens grow relatively slowly, and it is uncertain how they propagate. Most botanists agree that reproduction is vegetative because portions of an existing lichen break off and fall away to begin a new organism nearby.
Lichens are hardyorganisms, being found in hostileenvironments where few other organ-isms can survive. Humans have used lichens as food and as sources of medicine and dye. The presence of lichens is a sign that the atmosphere is pure. Lichens help reduce erosion by stabilizing soil. They also are a major source of food for the caribou and reindeer that live in the extreme north.
1. Which of the following is true about the association of the lichen?
Question 13 of 47
2. The word previously in the first paragraph is closest in meaning to
Question 14 of 47
3.Prior to the invention of microscopes, what did scientists believe about lichens?
Question 15 of 47
4. The word intimate in the second paragraph is closest in meaning to
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5. The author uses the word mutualistic in paragraph two to describe
Question 17 of 47
6. The author implies that
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7. The author states that the relationship between the words fungus/fungi and alga/algae is
Question 19 of 47
8. The author implies that vegetative reproduction means
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9. The author states that
Question 21 of 47
10. The word nearby at the end of paragraph four is closest in meaning to
Question 22 of 47
11. The word hardy at the beginning of the last paragraph is closest in meaning to
Question 23 of 47
Collecting coins can be a good investment, but it requires the study of popularity, avail-ability, and grading techniques. Some coins are more desirable than others, their popularity being affected by the artists’ talent, the subject of the design, the material from which the coin is made, and the time period when the coin was created. Availability is just as critical. Providing the coin is other-wise interesting or pleasing to the eye, the number of coins minted and available on the market seems to have a direct relationship to the popularity.
The ability to grade coins is perhaps the most important requirement of a collector. A coin that is popular and scarce, which would normally make it valuable, may be worth much less or nothing at all if it has a low grade. Grading is standardized, and one can buy books and take courses on how to do it.
Grades are given letter designations as well as numbers. The letters represent general levels of the grade, while the numbers are more detailed. For example, there are 11 number grades within the letter grade for a mint state coin. A mint state coin is uncirculated, which means it has never been used in commerce. It is in the condition that it left the mint, the place where a coin is created. The mint state letter designation is MS, and the numbers range from 60 through 70. An absolutely perfect coin is MS-70. It takes much training and a good eye to tell the difference between coins in this range. The things one considers include whether the coin has contact marks, which are marks obtained when coins bounce against each other in a coin bag; hairlines, which are marks appearing on the face of the coin from the minting process; luster, which is the natural coloration; and eye appeal. For example, an MS-70 is said to have no contact marks, no hairlines, very attractive and fully original luster, and outstanding eye appeal, while an MS-60 may have heavy contact marks, noticeable hairlines, impaired luster, and poor eye appeal.
Below the mint state coin, the letter designation and number have the same meaning. That is, there are generally no numbers within the range of letters. But there are categories:
Coins that are About Uncirculated: Very Choice About Uncirculated, known as AU-58; Choice About Uncirculated, known as AU-55; and About Uncirculated, known as AU-50.
Coins that are Fine: Choice Extremely Fine, known as EF-45; Extremely Fine, known as EF-40; Choice Very Fine, known as VF-30; Very Fine, known as VF-20; and Fine, known as F-12.
Coins that are Good: Very Good, known as VG-8; Good, known as G-4; and About Good, known as AG-3.
Thus, a circulated coin can have a number designation between 3 and 58, with only the numbers shown above available. That is, one cannot have a coin with a grade of 6, for example. It is either G-4 or VG-8. It is possible for a coin labeled G-4 or even AG-3 to be extremely valuable, but generally it will be a coin that is almost unavailable in higher grades. Books and publications monitor the coin market regularly, just like the stock market is monitored, and they describe a coin’s type, date, and grade, assigning a price to every one unless that grade would have no value.
In general, coin collectors loathe cleaned coins, so artificial cleaning by adding any chemical will detract greatly from a coin’s value. A true coin collector will say the dirt in the creases is a positive attribute and much preferable to a cleaned coin.
1. The word hostilein the last paragraph is closest in meaning to
Question 24 of 47
2. The author indicates that lichens are beneficial because they
Question 25 of 47
3. A good title for this passage would be
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4. The word talent in the second sentence is closest in meaning to
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5. The author describes a coin’s popularity as involving all the following except
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6. The word scarce in the second paragraph is closest in meaning to
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7. The author implies that availability is primarily related to
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8. The author implies that the most important feature of a coin is its
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9. The one grading category that has the most numbered grades within it is
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10. According to the author, the phrase contact marks means
Question 33 of 47
11. The word lusterin the third paragraph is closest in meaning to
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12. According to the passage, a Mint State coin with which of the following characteristics would be graded the highest?
Question 35 of 47
13. All of the following grades would be possible except
Question 36 of 47
14. The author implies that
Question 37 of 47
Hepatitis C is an illness, unknown until recently, that has been discovered in many individuals. It has been called an epidemic, yet unlike most illnesses with that designation, it is not easily transmitted. It is accurately referred to as epidemic in that so many people have been discovered with the illness, but it is different in that these people have actually carried the virus for many years. It is only transmitted by direct blood-to-blood contact; casual contact and even sexual contact are not believed to transmit the illness. Hepatitis means an inflammation or infection of the liver. Hepatitis C is generally chronic, as op-posed to acute. This means that it continues to affect the patient and is not known to have a sudden onsetor recovery.
The greatmajority of people infected with the illness either had a blood transfusion before the time that the disease was recognized in donated blood, or experimented with injecting illegal drugs when they were young. Many victims are educated, financially successful males between the ages of 40 and 50 who experimented with intravenous drugs as teenagers. There are frequently no symptoms, so the illness is discovered through routineblood tests. Most commonly, people learn theyhave the illness when they apply for life insurance or donate blood. The blood test reveals elevated liver enzymes, which could be caused by any form of hepatitis, by abuse of alcohol, or by other causes. Another test is then performed, and the result is learned.
Because the illness produces no symptoms, it of itself does not affect the victim’s life, at least at first. But the constant infection in the liver can eventually lead to cirrhosis of the liver, which is scarring and death of portions of the liver. The cirrhosis in turn can lead to liver cancer and, ultimately, death. Severe cases can be reversed with a liver transplant. Yet, because the virus may exist in the body for more than 20 years before being discovered, after reviewing the condition of the liver, doctors often suggest waiting and periodically checking the condition rather than performing radical treatment procedures. The liver’s condition is determined by a biopsy, in which a device is inserted into the liver and itscondition is viewed. If there is little or no cirrhosis, it is more likely that treatment will be postponed.
Treatment frequently causes more discomfort than the illness itself. It consists of some form of chemotherapy. Currently, the most frequent treatment is a combination therapy, with one drug injected three times a week and another taken orally, costing hundreds of dollars a week. The therapy causes the patient to have symptoms similar to influenza, and some patients suffer more than others. Unfortunately, many patients do not respond, or do not respond completely to the therapy. There is no alternative therapy at this time for non-responders, although researchers are continually trying to find a cure.
1. The author implies that
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2. The word onsetat the end of paragraph one is closest in meaning to
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2. The best title for this passage would be
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4. The word greatat the beginning of paragraph two is closest in meaning to
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5. The word routinein paragraph two is closest in meaning to
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6. The word theyin paragraph two refers to
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7. The author implies that
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8. The author indicates that a biopsy is performed in order to
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9. The author implies that hepatitis C
Question 46 of 47
10. The author states that people sometimes choose not to take treatment for hepatitis C for all of the following reasons except