Read the following passage. Then choose the best answer for each question.
The term “print” has several meanings, so it is important to understand exactly what is meant by the artistic terminology. A print in the artistic sense is not a reproduction of a work of art done in some other medium, such as painting or drawing. That can in no sense be considered a work of art, since the artist had no involvement with it. A print is an original work of art created by an indirect method. Instead of making an image directly on a surface, as in drawing or painting, the artist works on a master surface, which may be a sheet of metal, a block of stone, wood, plastic, or linoleum. From this master surface, numerous impressions may be made by inking the surface, laying a sheet of paper on it, and then subjecting both surface and paper to pressure, generally by means of a printing press. A print may exist in several versions.
Sometimes the printmaker alters the image between impressions, so that each print is slightly different from the others. Any series of such prints is referred to as multiples. The number of impressions (known as the edition) that are possible from a single original varies with the material. Prints made from linoleum, which wears readily, will be fewer than those made from a metal plate, which is capable of striking fine-quality prints in the thousands. It is customary to number prints as they come off the press, the earlier impressions being the finest and therefore the most desirable. Prints incorporate the same compositional principles, as paintings.
Line, shape, or texture may be the predominant element according to the printing technique used. Some prints have obvious decorative qualities while others may be filled with emotional impact. Printmaking derives from two historical sources: early woodblocks into which an image was cut and used to illustrate a book or playing cards, and the medieval practice of decorating metal with incised designs, as in armor. Today most techniques fall into one of four categories: relief ( intaglio, lithography, and serigraphy. However, there are many variations, combinations with photographic techniques, and considerable overlapping.
1. In the artistic sense, a print is a work of art created by