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Question 1 of 40
Read the following passages and then choose the best answer for each question.
During the Renaissance, renewed interest in the physical and medical worlds emerged, overshadowingsupernatural and religious viewpoints. Interest in the mind and soul were considered unscientific and thus relegated to the philosophers and clergy. New discoveries in chemistry, physics, biology, and mathematics unfolded rapidly and were met with great enthusiasm. Giovanni Battista Morgagni (1682- 1771) for example, discovered through autopsy that a diseased organ in the body could cause illness and death. Andreas Vesalius (1514- 1564), a Dutch physician, published an anatomy textbook in 1543 delineating dissection of the human body. The emphasis on scientific observation and experimentation rather than reason, mythology, religious beliefs, and dogma provided a model for future research and teaching. When William Harvey, an English physician, used the scientific method in 1628 to determine that blood circulated through the body because of the function of the heart, the Greek notion of imbalance of bodily fluids vanished from medical thinking. New medical discoveries drug the Renaissance resulted in biomedical reductionism in that disease, including mental illness, could be understood by scientific observation and experimentation rather than beliefs about mind and soul. The biological side of the integrative bio-psychosocial perspective was emphasized.
Rene Descartes (1596-1650), a French philosopher, argued that the mind and body were separate. The dualism of mind and body became the basis for Western medicine until recently. The mind and body were viewed historically as split, in that diseases of the body Were studied by the medical sciences while problems with the mind or emotional life were delegated to the philosophers and clergy However, mental illness was often considered a disease of the brain, and thus the insane were treated using the medical orientation of the time. Treatment of mental illness, however, laggedbehind these medical developments. During this period, physicians treated people who were considered deviant or abnormal by confiningthen to hospitals and asylums. Little treatment, other than custodial care, was provided to these patients and thus these asylums were renownedfor their prison-like environments. The term bedlam (a variant of Bethlehem), connoting chaos and hellish circumstances, originated when St. Mary of Bethlehem was opened in London during 1547. Active treatments, besides custodial care, included restrictive cribs, hunger cures, bloodletting, cold water dunking or hydrotherapy, and other painful treatments.
1. What does the passage mainly discuss?
Question 2 of 40
2. During the Renaissance, philosophers and clergy
Question 3 of 40
3. The Greek notion of imbalance of bodily fluids was forsaken in medical sciences due to the work done by
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4. All of the following are true about the mental illness during the Renaissance era EXCEPT:
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5. The term “bedlam” has negative connotations because
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6. The word “overshadowing” in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to
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7. The word “relegated” in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to
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8. The word “lagged” in paragraph could best be replaced by
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9. The word “confining” in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to
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10. The word “renowned” in paragraph 3 could best be replaced
Question 11 of 40
It has long been a subject of debate, whether the Industrial Revolution made possible the steam engine or vice versa. Surely the practical steam engine could not have been developed without the efficient mining of coal and the smelting and working of metals, mainly the ferrous, and the development of effective prime movers, principally in the form of water powered machinery. Conversely, it can be equally well argued that none of these developments would have been possible without the steam engine. While the early history of the steam engine is inextricably bound up with the raising of water almost solely for the dewatering of mines and in itself a vital chapter of the Industrial Revolution it was not until the steam engine became capable of producing continuous rotary power, and thus was able to drive the machinery of factories and mills, that manufacturing developed on a truly industrial scale. This ability of a prime mover to turn a shaft independent of the vagaries of flowing water or blowing wind and, most significantly, free of the geographical restraint of a source of falling water had implications that ultimately reached far beyond the propulsion of factory machinery. As metal-working techniques were refined and, consequently, it became possible to increase the rotational speed of the steam engine, its size could be proportionally reduced resulting in portability. This in due course, led logically to the steamboat, the steam locomotive, and ultimately a vast array of other mobile steam-powered machinery and vehicles. But until about 1910, the preponderance of steam power was directed to the driving of stationary machinery in mines, mills, factories, and processing plants in a wide variety of industries. The basic configuration of Watt’s relative beam engine exemplified by the landmark engine in Sydney remained essentially unchanged and commercially viablefor well over a century. Even with improvements in metallurgy, thermal efficiency, lubrication, and machine design, and even as the direct-connected horizontal steam engine gained in popularity for the mechanical driving of machinery and later generators, the beam engine as conceivedby Watt continued to be built by manufacturers principally in Europe throughout the nineteenth century.
1. What does the passage mainly discuss?
Question 12 of 40
2. The efficient working of ferrous metals helped with the development of
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3. According to paragraph 1, one of the early vital chapter of Industrial Revolution was
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4. Steam-powered vehicles became possible after
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5. All the following are true about Watt’s beam engine EXCEPT
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6. The word “inextricably” in paragraph 1 is closest meaning to
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7. The phrase “in due course” in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to
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8. The word “preponderance” in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to
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9. The word “viable” in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to
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10. The word “conceived” in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to
Question 21 of 40
The two major centers from which Islamic classical civilization radiated were Damascus under the Umayyad caliphate and Baghdad under the Abbasid caliphate. With the foundation of the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem in 691, the Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik inauguratedIslamic monumental architecture. With its location on the temple mount, its glass mosaies with Byzantine and Persian motifs in a novel combination, its extensive Koranic inscription inviting non-Muslims to join Islam, this monument emphasizes the religious appropriation of the past by the new Muslim rulers. The Great Mosque of Damascus, founded slightly later in 715 by the caliph al-Walid, rather emphasized political appropriation. Its interior, entirely covered with glass mosaics representing landscape with architecture, displayed the largest surface ever to be decorated in this Byzantine medium. The lavishness of its decoration expressed imperial continuity under a new Islamite identity. When al-Walid rebuilt the Prophet’s mosque in Medina, he again used glass mosaics for its decoration, doing away with its initial simplicity documented in Islamic tradition and cherished by Muslims to the present day. Historical accounts mention Byzantine craftsmen and materials used in this reconstruction, emphasizing the Umayyad appropriation of Byzantine paraphernalia. With the foundation of Baghdad along the Tigris as the capital of the new Abbasid caliphate following the overthrow of the Umayyads of Damascus in the mid-eighth century the center of gravity of the Muslim Empire was transferred from the Byzantine East Mediterranean to Iraq. Mesopotamian and Iranian culture superseded Byzantine influences in the design of the round city of Baghdad founded by the caliph al-Mansur and in the abstract decoration developed in the following century, which henceforth became a characteristic feature of Islamic art. As Byzantium and Iran were the two great imperial powers defeated in the course of the Arab conquest, the appropriation of their arts, besides being a matter of convenience, proclaimed their submission to the Muslims. Their arts and regalia, symbols of their power, became the trophy with which the conquerors glorified themselves.
1. What does the passage mainly discuss?
Question 22 of 40
2. The first Islamic architectural monument was built in
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3. It is implied in paragraph 1 that the Dome of the Rock can be interpreted as a symbol of
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4. According to historical accounts , the material used in the reconstruction of the Prophet’s mosque in Medina was
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5. It can be inferred from paragraph 4 that the abstract decoration developed in the 9th century was influenced
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6. The word inaugurated” in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to
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7. The word “cherished” in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to
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8. The word “superseded” in paragraph 4 is closest in meaning to
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9. The word “henceforth” in paragraph 4 is closest in meaning to
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10. The word “trophy” in paragraph 4 is closest in meaning to
Question 31 of 40
The study of the internal structure and dynamics of the Sun through the analysis of solar oscillations is called helioseismology. The Sun vibrates like a gong with periods ranging from minutes to hours, but principally in the range 3 to 20 min. These oscillations can be detected as small periodic Doppler shifts in the wavelengths of spectral lines emitted by localized regions of the solar surface as they rise toward, and fall away from, the observer.
The oscillations are produced by sound waves (pressure waves) that propagate through the solar globe. The speed of sound depends on various factors, including temperature and density, both of which increase with increasing depth below the solar surface. Consequently, a wave moving downward from a point on the surface is refracted and eventually curves back to meet the surface at another point. The sharp change in density at the surface then reflects the wave back down into the solar interior, enabling it to bounce repeatedly around the Sun and thereby produce standing waves that cause different parts of the solar surface to vibrate up and down in a systematic fashion. The deeper the wave penetrates, the fewer the points at which it meets the surface. By analyzing the millions of different modes of oscillation, and separating out those that penetrate to diligent depths, solar physicists can study the structure of the solar interior in the same sort of way as geophysicists use seismic waves to study the interior of the Earth. Furthermore, by comparing the speeds at which waves travel in the same direction as, and in the opposite direction to, the rotation of the Sun itself, it is possible to determine how the relation rate of the solar interior varies with depth and latitude. Helioseismology provides information on the variation with depth of temperature, density, pressure, chemical Composition and rotational velocity. Observations have shown, for example, that the boundarybetween the radiative and convective zones occurs 71.3% of the way from the center to the surface.
1. The Sun mostly oscillates every
Question 32 of 40
2. The Doppler shifts in the spectral lines are produced by
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3. The deeper we get below the solar
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4. The sound waves reflect back down into the solar interior because
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5. By analyzing solar oscillations, solar physicists obtain all of the following information about the Sun EXCEPT
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6. The word “they” in paragraph 1 refers to
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7. The word “propagate” in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to
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8. The word “bounce” in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to
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9. The word “standing” in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to:
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10. The word “boundary” in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to: