0 of 10 questions completed
You have already completed the Test before. Hence you can not start it again.
Test is loading...
This Exam has been restricted to registered users only. Login
You have to finish following quiz, to start this Test:
0 of 10 questions answered correctly
Time has elapsed
You have reached 0 of 0 points, (0)
Read the following passage and then choose the best answer for each question.
The response of most animals when suddenly faced with a predator is to flee. Natural selection has acted in a variety of ways in different species to enhance the efficacy of the behaviors, known as “ flight behaviors” or escape behaviors, that are used by prey in fleeing predators. Perhaps the most direct adaptation is enhanced flight speed and agility.
Adaptations for speed, however, are likely to require sacrifices in other attributes, so we might expect only some species to adopt a simple fast flight strategy. Another way of enhancing the effectiveness of flight is to move in an erratic and unpredictable way. Many species, like ptarmigans, snipes, and various antelopes and gazelles, flee from predators in a characteristic zigzag fashion. Rapid unexpected changes in flight direction make it difficult for a predator to track prey. In some species, like the European hare, erratic zigzag flight might be more effective in the presence of predators that are faster than they are and straight flight more effective against predators that are slower. One observation that supports this suggestion is the recorded
tendency for slow-flying black-headed gulls, which are normally able to escape predators by means of direct flight, to show frequent changes in flight direction when they spot a peregrine falcon (peregrines are adept at capturing flying birds).
A quite different way of enhancing escape by flight is to use so-called “flash” behavior. Here, the alarmed prey flees for a short distance and then “freezes.” Some predators are unexcited by immobile prey, and a startling flash of activity followed by immobility may confuse them. “Flash” behavior is used in particular by frogs and orthopteran insects, which make conspicuous jumps and then sit immobile. In some species, “flash” behavior is enhanced by the display of bright body markings. Good examples of insects with colorful makings are the red and yellow underwing moths. At rest, both species are a cryptic brown color. When they fly, however, brightly colored hind wings are exposed, which render the moths highly conspicuous. Similarly, some frogs and lizards have brightly colored patches or frills that may serve a “flash” function when they move quickly. Some species even appear to possess “flash” sounds. The loud buzzing and clicking noises made by some grasshoppers when they jump may serve to emphasize the movement.
1. The word “enhance” in line 2 is closest in meaning toCorrectIncorrect
2. The description of the prey’s movement as “zigzag” in line 9 suggests that the movement isCorrectIncorrect
3. It can be inferred from the passage that the European hareCorrectIncorrect
4. The behavior of black-headed gulls is most comparable to that ofCorrectIncorrect
5. It can be inferred that black-headed gulls change direction when they spot a peregrine falcon for which of the following reasons?CorrectIncorrect
6. The word “alarmed” in line 15 is closest in meaning toCorrectIncorrect
7. All of the following are mentioned as characteristics of “flash” behavior EXCEPTCorrectIncorrect
8. The phrase “in particular” in line 17 is closest in meaning toCorrectIncorrect
9. The hind wings of red and yellow underwing moths function in a way that is most similar toCorrectIncorrect
10. Why does the author mention grasshoppers in line 24?CorrectIncorrect