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Read the following passage and then choose the best answer for each question.
The technology of the North American colonies did not suffer strikingly from that of Europe, but in one respect, the colonists enjoyed a great advantage. Especially by comparison with Britain, Americans had a wonderfully plentiful supply of wood.
The first colonists did not, as many people imagine, find an entire continent covered by a climax forest. Even along the Atlantic seaboard, the forest was broken at many points. Nevertheless, all sorts of fine trees abounded, and through the early colonial period, those who pushed westward encountered new forests. By the end of the colonial era, the price of wood had risen slightly in eastern cities, but wood was still extremely abundant.
The availability of wood brought advantages that have seldom been appreciated. Wood was a foundation of the economy. Houses and all manner of buildings were made of wood to a degree unknown in Britain. Secondly, wood was used as fuel for heating and cooking. Thirdly, it was used as the source of important industrial compounds, such as potash, an industrial alkali; charcoal, a component of gunpowder; and tannic acid, used for tanning leather.
The supply of wood conferred advantages but had some negative aspects as well. Iron at that time was produced by heating iron ore with charcoal. Because Britain was so stripped of trees, she was unable to exploit her rich iron mines. But the American colonies had both iron ore and wood; iron production was encouraged and became successful. However, when Britain developed coke smelting, the Colonies did not follow suit because they had plenty of wood and besides, charcoal iron was stronger than coke iron. Coke smelting led to technological innovations and was linked to the emergence of the Industrial Revolution. In the early nineteenth century, the former colonies lagged behind Britain in industrial development because their supply of wood led them to cling to charcoal iron.
1. What does the passage mainly discuss?CorrectIncorrect
- The word “strikingly” in line 2 is closest in meaning to
- Which ofthe following is a common assumption about the forests of North America during the colonial period?
4. The use of the word “abounded” in line 8 indicates that the trees wereCorrectIncorrect
- According to the passage, by the end of the colonial period, the price of wood in eastern cities
- What can be inferred about houses in Britain during the period written about in the passage?
- Why does the author mention gunpowder in line 19?
8. The word “conferred” in line 21 is closest in meaning toCorrectIncorrect
9. The phrase “follow suit” in line 27 meansCorrectIncorrect
- According to the passage, why was the use of coke smelting advantageous?
- The phrase “cling to” in line 33 is closest in meaning to
- Where in the passage does the author begin to discuss in detail the disadvantages that an abundant supply of wood brought to the colonies?